Catherine Dautriche 1674 - 1741. Their enmity continuing, Marie Antoinette played a decisive role in defeating him in his aims to become the mayor of Paris in November 1791. [96] This was unpopular, particularly with those factions of the nobility who disliked the queen, but also with a growing percentage of the population, who disapproved of a Queen of France independently owning a private residence. A constitutional priest was assigned to her to hear her final confession. Her alleged remark “Let them eat cake” has been cited as showing her obliviousness to the poor conditions in which many of her subjects lived while she lived decadently, but she probably never said it. Some think that he invented it altogether. His title was bestowed by his royalist supporters and acknowledged implicitly by his uncle's later adoption of the regnal name Louis XVIII rather than Louis XVII, upon the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814. Portfolio : Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche. As early as 1774, Marie Antoinette had begun to befriend some of her male admirers, such as the baron de Besenval, the duc de Coigny, and Count Valentin Esterházy,[41][42] and also formed deep friendships with various ladies at court. Signaler. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success. Politically engaged authors have deemed her the quintessential representative of class conflict, western aristocracy and absolutism. Lafayette, one of the former military leaders in the American War of Independence (1775–83), served as the warden of the royal family in his position as commander-in-chief of the Garde Nationale. | lot 69 | | English. She became dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. [88] Its creation, however, caused another uproar when its cost became widely known. Marie-Antoinette’s intention was to present an official image of herself as both queen and mother. When the affair was discovered, those involved (except de La Motte and Rétaux de Villette, who both managed to flee) were arrested, tried, convicted, and either imprisoned or exiled. The false accusations of the Affair of the Diamond Necklace damaged her reputation further. At this point, the tide against royal authority intensified in the population and political parties, while Marie Antoinette encouraged the king to veto the new laws voted by the Legislative Assembly in 1792. Last Queen of France before the French Revolution, wife of Louis XVI. Brought safely back to Paris, they were met with total silence by the crowd. For instance, a writing table attributed to Riesener, now located at Waddesdon Manor, bears witness to Marie-Antoinette's desire to escape the oppressive formality of court life, when she decided to move the table from the Queen's boudoir de la Meridienne at Versailles to her humble interior, the Petit Trianon. Lafayette's reputation never recovered from the event and, on 8 October, he resigned as commander of the Garde Nationale. [170] Moreover, the view that the unpopular queen was controlling the king further degraded the royal couple's standing with the people, which the Jacobins successfully exploited after their return from Varennes to advance their radical agenda to abolish the monarchy. Initially banned by the king due to its negative portrayal of the nobility, the play was finally allowed to be publicly performed because of the queen's support and its overwhelming popularity at court, where secret readings of it had been given by Marie Antoinette. [179][180], Marie Antoinette's actions in refusing to collaborate with the Girondins, in power between April and June 1792, led them to denounce the treason of the Austrian comity, a direct allusion to the queen. [118][119] Around the same time, Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy escaped from prison and fled to London, where she published damaging slander concerning her supposed amorous affair with the queen. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. French Revolution 18th century. [228] The main actors in the scandal were Cardinal de Rohan, prince de Rohan-Guéméné, Great Almoner of France, and Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy, Comtesse de La Motte, a descendant of an illegitimate child of Henry II of France of the House of Valois. Of these, only Armand, Ernestine, and Zoe actually lived with the royal family: Jean Amilcar, along with the elder siblings of Zoe and Armand who were also formally foster children of the royal couple, simply lived at the queen's expense until her imprisonment, which proved fatal for at least Amilcar, as he was evicted from the boarding school when the fee was no longer paid, and reportedly starved to death on the street. On 11 July at Marie Antoinette's urging Necker was dismissed and replaced by Breteuil, the queen's choice to crush the Revolution with mercenary Swiss troops under the command of one of her favorites, Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt. 0:09. Le 19 avril 1770, à 14 ans, Marie-Antoinette est mariée par procuration au dauphin de France, le futur Louis XVI. She was born in 1755 in Austria, and at just 15 years old married the future French King, Louis XVI. Despite his dislike of the queen—he detested her as much as she detested him and at one time had even threatened to send her to a convent—he was persuaded by the mayor of Paris, Jean Sylvain Bailly, to work and collaborate with her, and allowed her to see Fersen a number of times. Shortly after her birth she was placed under the care of the governess of the imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Jun 19, 2018 - Buy online, view images and see past prices for JEAN-FRANÇOIS JANINET Marie Antoinette d''Autriche, Reine de France et de Navarre.. Marie Antoinette, whose life was as much in danger, remained with the king, whose power was gradually being taken away by the National Constituent Assembly. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the royal family to take refuge at the Assembly, and they were imprisoned in the Temple Prison on 13 August. Even the king, who had been hesitant, accepted his wife's decision to flee with the help of foreign powers and counter-revolutionary forces. She and her court also adopted the English fashion of dresses made of indienne (a material banned in France from 1686 until 1759 to protect local French woolen and silk industries), percale and muslin. Zoom; Creative Commons Zero license; Title. After Madame Roland sent a letter to the king denouncing the queen's role in these matters, urged by the queen, Louis XVI disbanded[citation needed] the government, thus losing his majority in the Assembly. In her youth, she was a pawn on the diplomatic chessboard of Europe, as France and Austria attempted to navigate the complex web of allegiances that shaped the continent in the wake of the Seven Years’ War. [137][138], In the days following the storming of the Bastille, for fear of assassination, and ordered by the king, the emigration of members of the high aristocracy began on 17 July with the departure of the comte d'Artois, the Condés, cousins of the king,[139] and the unpopular Polignacs. Marie Antoinette d’Autriche, reine des Francais; Louis XVI, roi des Francais. Portrait de Marie Antoinette d'Autriche, reine de France, avec Louis XVI et l'archiduc Maximilian d'Autriche, 1776 Josef Hauzinger Détail. A significant achievement of Marie Antoinette in that period was the establishment of an alliance with Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, the most important lawmaker in the assembly. She was Louis XV's mistress and had considerable political influence over him. [64], Repayment of the French debt remained a difficult problem, further exacerbated by Vergennes and also by Marie Antoinette's prodding[65] Louis XVI to involve France in Great Britain's war with its North American colonies. There were and still claims that the two were romantically involved,[83] but since most of their correspondence has been lost or destroyed, there is no conclusive evidence. Elle est citée par Jean-Jacques Rousseau comme le dit d’« une grande princesse » dans ses Confessions, livre VI, dans un extrait écrit en 1770 alors que Marie-Antoinette … [210][211], Marie Antoinette was guillotined at 12:15 p.m. on 16 October 1793. She was only 14 when her parents had her married to the dauphin Louis, grandson of Louis XV of France, for diplomatic purposes. [citation needed] Upon Leopold's death in 1792, his son, Francis, a conservative ruler, was ready to support the cause of the French royal couple more vigorously because he feared the consequences of the French Revolution and its ideas for the monarchies of Europe, particularly, for Austria's influence in the continent. [20], Madame du Barry proved a troublesome foe to the new dauphine. Her name is associated with the decline in the moral authority of the French monarchy in the closing years of the ancien régime, though her courtly extravagance was but a minor cause of the financial disorders of the French state in that period. Initially, the majority was with Barnave, but the queen's policies led to the radicalization of the Assembly and the moderates lost control of the legislative process. Marie Antoinette, who had insisted on the arrest of the Cardinal, was dealt a heavy personal blow, as was the monarchy, and despite the fact that the guilty parties were tried and convicted, the affair proved to be extremely damaging to her reputation, which never recovered from it. Sa ville, sa famille, ses influences. Strict security measures were taken to assure that Marie Antoinette was not able to communicate with the outside world. After a crowd stormed the Bastille on July 14, 1789, the queen failed to convince Louis to take refuge with his army at Metz. Marie Antoinette was persuaded by her husband's aunts to refuse to acknowledge du Barry, which some saw as a political blunder that jeopardized Austria's interests at the French court. There had been several plots designed to help the royal family escape, which the queen had rejected because she would not leave without the king, or which had ceased to be viable because of the king's indecision. [39] In her correspondence, Marie Antoinette's mother, Maria Theresa, expressed concern over her daughter's spending habits, citing the civil unrest it was beginning to cause.[40]. parcours de vie (Béa) père meut lorsqu'elle a 18 ans et devient reine du pays. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The château's high price, almost 6 million livres, plus the substantial extra cost of redecorating, ensured that much less money was going towards repaying France's substantial debt. The queen's political ideas and her belief in the absolute power of monarchs were based on France's long-established tradition of the divine right of kings. "'16 ["Remain a good … View the profiles of people named Marie Antoinette D'Autriche. This choice also expressed the new interest shown in childhood in this period. The books were published in 1793, the year the royal couple were executed. Testament de Marie-Antoinette-Josèphe-Jeanne de Lorraine, archiduchesse d'Autriche - broché, reine de France et de Navarre, née à Vienne le 2 novembre 1755, morte martyre le 16 octobre 1793 [67], In 1783, the queen played a decisive role in the nomination of Charles Alexandre de Calonne, a close friend of the Polignacs, as Controller-General of Finances, and of the baron de Breteuil as the Minister of the Royal Household, making him perhaps the strongest and most conservative minister of the reign. [78] This decision met with disapproval from the court as the duchess was considered to be of too modest a birth to occupy such an exalted position. It inspired Mozart's Le Nozze di Figaro, which premiered in Vienna on 1 May 1786. Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. In foreign policy, she encountered the opposition of both Louis XVI and Vergennes in her efforts to advance Austrian interests, and it is certain that her brother, Emperor Joseph II, was gravely disappointed at her lack of success. The June 1791 attempted flight to Varennes and her role in the War of the First Coalition had disastrous effects on French popular opinion. Her favourite objects filled her small, private chateau and reveal aspects of Marie-Antoinette's character that have been obscured by satirical political prints, such as those in Les Tableaux de la Révolution. Marie Antoinette's trial began on 14 October 1793, and two days later she was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason and executed, also by guillotine, on the Place de la Révolution. )[166], After their return from Varennes and until the storming of the Tuileries on 10 August 1792, the queen, her family and entourage were held under tight surveillance by the Garde Nationale in the Tuileries, where the royal couple was guarded night and day. Learn about the things movies have gotten wrong about the life of Marie-Antoinette. [228], Last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution, Articles and topics related to Marie Antoinette, Generations are numbered by male-line descent from, Significant civil and political events by year, Motherhood, changes at court, intervention in politics (1778–81), Prelude to the Revolution: scandals and the failure of reforms (1786–89), Failure of political and financial reforms, French Revolution before Varennes (1789–91), Flight, arrest at Varennes and return to Paris (21–25 June 1791), Radicalization of the Revolution after Varennes (1791–92), Events leading to the abolition of the monarchy on 10 August 1792, harvnb error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFFraser2002 (, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLever2006 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPierre_NolhacLa_Dauphine_Marie_Antoinette,1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNolhac1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAlfred_et_Geffroy_D'ArnethCorrespondance_Secrete_entre_Marie-Therese_et_le_Comte_de_Mercy-Argenteau,_vol_31874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCronin1974 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFALfred_and_Geffroy_d'Arneth1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFJackes_LevronMadame_du_Barry1973 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEvelyne_LeverMarie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_ii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLeverMarie_Antoinette_1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_i1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHoward_Patricia,_Gluck1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geoffroy,_iii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice_MunroPreserving_the_Monarchy:_The_Comte_de_Vergennes,_1774–17871995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLettres_de_Marie_AntoinetteLe_Marquis_de_Beaucourt1895Vol_ii (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLever,_Marie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMunro_PriceThe_Road_to_Versailles2003 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFZweig_StephanMarie_Antoinette1938 (, Farr, Evelyn, Marie Antoinette and Count Fersen: Untold Love Story, Hunt, Lynn. The accused states her name: “Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine d’Autriche.” In itself this is a very bold move: she reminds the jurors of her French paternal ancestry (Lorraine) but also, less diplomatically, of the phrase The Austrian Woman. [10] At the age of 10 she could not write correctly in German or in any language commonly used at court, such as French or Italian,[4] and conversations with her were stilted. She was also unfortunate that the timid, uninspiring Louis proved to be an inattentive husband. Marie Antoinette was prevented from seeing it, but fainted upon learning of it. [5] Maria Antonia was raised together with her sister, Maria Carolina, who was three years older, and with whom she had a lifelong close relationship. [85], Around this time, pamphlets describing farcical sexual deviance including the Queen and her friends in the court were growing in popularity around the country. [101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108] Fraser has also noted that the birthdate matches up perfectly with a known conjugal visit from the King. This bag, with its fresh, unique look, is your ideal bag for the task.Soft French Linen Printed front of Marie Antoinette d'Autriche Reine de France , and Back side of luxurious Chanille fabric with matching straps ,fully lined in beautiful Silk antique Gold color. In 1774, she took under her patronage her former music teacher, the German opera composer Christoph Willibald Gluck, who remained in France until 1779. [62] The new fashion called for a simpler feminine look, typified first by the rustic robe à la polonaise style and later by the gaulle, a layered muslin dress Marie Antoinette wore in a 1783 Vigée-Le Brun portrait. Barnave and the Lameth brothers were anxious to check the progress of republicanism and to bring the Revolution to a close, and they gathered like minds under the banner of the Club of the Feuillants. Eventually, Marie Antoinette's reputation was no better than that of the favorites of previous kings. She blamed him for his support of the Revolution and did not regret his resignation in 1790.[147][148]. [186], A week later, several of the royal family's attendants, among them the Princesse de Lamballe, were taken for interrogation by the Paris Commune. Popular hatred of Marie-Antoinette contributed to the monarchy’s overthrow in 1792 and to her and Louis XVI’s subsequent imprisonment. It compared Marie Antoinette to the Countess du Barry, suggesting that they had the same fondness for nighttime walks in the gardens of … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Marie Antoinette d’Autriche, reine des Francais; Louis XVI, roi des Francais. Marie Antoinette, par Mme Vigée Lebrun en 1783 She married Louis in 1770, when she was 14 years old and four years before he became the king. [99] The fact that the birth occurred exactly nine months after Fersen's return did not escape the attention of many, leading to doubt as to the parentage of the child and to a noticeable decline of the queen's reputation in public opinion. Object type. Marie-Antoinette-Josèphe-Jeanne d'Autriche-Lorraine, 1755 – 1793. "[49], Suggestions that Louis suffered from phimosis, which was relieved by circumcision, have been discredited. This gave the impression, partially justified, that the queen had sided with Austria against France. Religion played an important role in the life of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI, both raised in the Roman Catholic faith. He sat by her in the cart, but she ignored him all the way to the scaffold. [132][133][134] At the news, Paris was besieged by riots that culminated in the storming of the Bastille on 14 July. Cette condamnation est prononcée par le Tribunal révolutionnaire le 16 octobre 1793, à quatre heures et demie du matin, après un procès qui a duré deux jours. [33][34][35], On 24 May 1774, two weeks after the death of Louis XV, the king gifted his wife the Petit Trianon, a small château on the grounds of Versailles that had been built by Louis XV for his mistress, Madame de Pompadour. Marie Antoinette had profoundly disliked Rohan since the time he had been the French ambassador to Vienna when she was a child. [182], On 20 June 1792, "a mob of terrifying aspect" broke into the Tuileries, made the king wear the bonnet rouge (red Phrygian cap) to show his loyalty to the Republic, insulted Marie Antoinette, accusing her of betraying France, and threatened her life. Thomas Paine advocated exile to America. History of France, old engraved illustrat - 2AGTE8M from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. The princess de Lamballe, who remained loyal to the queen throughout the Revolution, was imprisoned along with her. Leaving the tower she bumped her head against the lintel of a door, which prompted one of her guards to ask her if she was hurt, to which she answered, "No! This portrait was sent to the Dauphin to show him what his future bride looked like DUCREUX, Joseph L'archiduchesse Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche, future reine de France Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria, the later Queen Marie Antoinette of France 1769 Château de Versailles, Versailles 6. This incident was all the more unfortunate for the queen’s reputation because, since the birth of her daughter Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte in December 1778 and of the dauphin Louis in October 1781, she led a quieter and more conventional life. The scandal discredited the monarchy and encouraged the nobles to vigorously oppose (1787–88) all the financial reforms advocated by the king’s ministers. [228] Armand and Zoe had a position which was more similar to that of Ernestine; Armand lived at court with the king and queen until he left them at the outbreak of the revolution because of his republican sympathies, and Zoe was chosen to be the playmate of the Dauphin, just as Ernestine had once been selected as the playmate of Marie-Therese, and sent away to her sisters in a convent boarding school before the Flight to Varennes in 1791. Some historians believe the outcome of the trial had been decided in advance by the Committee of Public Safety around the time the Carnation Plot (fr) was uncovered. print; Museum number. [135][136] Lamballe refused to take an oath against the monarchy, and on September 3, 1792, she was delivered to the hands of a Parisian mob; they cut off her head and paraded it on a pike outside Marie-Antoinette’s windows. Le Martyre de Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche. On the urging of the queen, Louis XVI dismissed Calonne on 8 April 1787. She never fully trusted Mirabeau, however, and the king refused to contemplate a civil war, which would have been the inevitable result of Mirabeau’s initial plans. Apr 3, 2015 - This Pin was discovered by Esin Alptuna. [152] An agreement was reached turning Mirabeau into one of her political allies: Marie Antoinette promised to pay him 6000 livres per month and one million if he succeeded in his mission to restore the king's authority. In her new role and with increasing political power, the queen tried to improve the awkward situation brewing between the assembly and the king. Estienne Prunay 1669 - 1692. She counted most on the support of her Austrian family. Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche (1755 - 1793) fut reine de France de 1774 à 1793 et l’épouse de Louis XVI. On the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette, as did others who disliked her for more personal or petty reasons. Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche, reine de France, a la nation. As queen, Marie-Antoinette was always unpopular. Nothing now can hurt me. Throughout her imprisonment and up to her execution, Marie Antoinette could count on the sympathy of conservative factions and social-religious groups which had turned against the Revolution, and also on wealthy individuals ready to bribe republican officials to facilitate her escape;[192] These plots all failed. She accepted Necker's proposition to double the representation of the Third Estate (tiers état) in an attempt to check the power of the aristocracy. Varennes, une série inédite proposée par Europe 1 / Marie-Antoinette. [89][90] However, the hamlet was not an eccentricity of Marie Antoinette's. The Peace of Teschen, signed on 13 May 1779, ended the brief conflict, with the queen imposing French mediation at her mother's insistence and Austria's gaining a territory of at least 100,000 inhabitants—a strong retreat from the early French position which was hostile towards Austria. Juger la reine d’Emmanuel de Waresquiel : l'histoire de Marie-Antoinette. Louis-Marie SICARDI (1743-1825) "Portrait de Marie Antoinette d'Autriche, 1819". This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 14:20. [164][165], Marie Antoinette's first Lady of the Bedchamber, Mme Campan, wrote about what happened to the queen's hair on the night of 21–22 June, " a single night, it had turned white as that of a seventy-year old woman." Discover (and save!) On lui reprocha ses liens avec l'étranger. 2:24. After many delays, the escape was ultimately attempted on 21 June 1791, but the entire family was arrested less than twenty-four hours later at Varennes and taken back to Paris within a week. [55][56], In the middle of the queen's pregnancy two events occurred which had a profound effect on her later life: the return of her friend and lover, the Swedish diplomat Count Axel von Fersen[57] to Versailles for two years, and her brother's claim to the throne of Bavaria, contested by the Habsburg monarchy and Prussia.